نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه گیلان

2 دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی - واحد زنجان

10.22103/jrl.2022.3225

چکیده

مطابق با رویکرد جهانی شدن ادبیات، یکی از مؤلفه­های مهم در تسریع روند جهانی شدن آثار ادبی را مؤلفه­های پیرامتنی تشکیل می­دهد. زیرا یک اثر علاوه بر آنکه نیازمند برخورداری از مؤلفه زبانی و فنی و محتوایی برای صعود به قله جهانی شدن می­باشد، می­بایست از مؤلفه­های پیرامتنی لازم جهت دستبابی به این مهم بهره­مند باشد. شاخصه­های پیرامتنی یک اثر در صورت برخوداری یک اثر از سایر مؤلفه­ها، حلقه جهانی شدن را کامل می­کند و در صورت عدم برخورداری یک اثر از این شاخصه­ها، مسیر دشواری برای پیمودن و وصول به مرتبه جهانی شدن دارد. در این مقاله سه رمان از ادبیات پایداری ایران و سه رمان از ادبیات مقاومت فلسطین از جهت برخورداری از مؤلفه های پیرامتنی مورد مطالعه قرار می­گیرد. عناصر فرامتنی مهم از قبیل ترجمه و جریان نقد ادبی توانمند، تبادل فرهنگی، نمایشگاه و بازار جهانی، رسانه جدید، از مهم­ترین مؤلفه­های مورد بحث در این مقاله برای سنجش و ارزیابی مؤلفه­های پیرامتنی مورد توجه نگارندگان بوده است. نتیجه نشان می­دهد ادبیات فلسطین از جهت برخورداری مؤلفه ­های پیرامتنی از موقعیت بالاتری نسبت به ادبیات پایداری ایران برخوردار است از این رو شایسته است تا با تقویت و تحکیم این بنیان­های فرهنگی و فرامتنی مهم، آثار دفاع مقدس به مرز جهانی شدن رسیده و شاهد شکوفایی و فتح قله­های جهانی توسط آثار ماندگار ادبیات دفاع مقدس ایران و حتی ادبیات مقاومت فلسطین در جهان باشیم.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The Role of Contextual Components in the Globalization of Resistance Novel (A Small-scale Comparative Study)

نویسندگان [English]

  • shahram delshad 1
  • fazel abaszadeh 2

1 Lecturer of Arabic Language and Literature, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, University of Guilan, Guilan, Iran

2 Assistant Professor of Persian Language and Literature, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan Branch, Zanjan, Iran

چکیده [English]

Introduction

According to the approach of globalization of literature, one of the important components in accelerating the process of globalization of literary works is the contextual components. Because a work, in addition to having a linguistic, technical and content components in order to reach the peak of globalization, must have the necessary contextual and meta textual components to achieve this position. The contextual characteristics of a work complete a circle of globalization if a work has other components, and if a work does not have these characteristics, it has a difficult path to go through and reach the level of globalization. In this article, three novels from Iranian sacred literature and three novels from the Palestinian resistance literature are studied in terms of contextual components. Important meta textual elements, such as translation and the flow of powerful literary criticism, cultural exchange, global exhibitions and markets, new media, have been the most important components discussed in this article to measure and evaluate the meta textual components considered by the authors.
 

Methodology

What is most important is to achieve a comprehensive and coherent model and components for evaluating literary works. The theory developed by Hesam Khatib is one of the most important theories and the most comprehensive one for the study of literary works. In his view, in addition to the textual components (e.g., structure, content, style, and content), a work needs to have contextual and meta textual components to reach the peak of globalization. Compared to other axes of globalization, it cannot be considered insignificant, but the value and importance of this axis, like other axes, is important and vital. There may be many works that are structural and stylistic, original and creative, and have rich contents and themes, but the lack of contextual features has caused those works to move away from the border of globalization.
 

Discussion

The novels of the Arab resistance in terms of translation into different languages ​​of the world have surpassed the Persian times and have won a greater share of the translation market and this is an important cultural channel and entry into the field of globalization. Apart from any prejudice and bias, with a scientific and fair critique, it can be concluded that Persian novels, due to their low quality, lack of a rich literary language, and lack of technically important narrative techniques, have a less share of this global market. The Holy Defense novel Chess with the Doomsday Machine, which has been translated into various languages, has these characteristics, and the author must be careful, obsessive, and knowledgeable in writing such novels, considering the appropriate subjects to write a great narrative, so that it can be welcomed across borders and conquer the world. This conquest means the penetration of the ideas and ideals of the revolution in the world with a good and fascinating novel and the later translation of it in the best way.
Literary criticism in Arab countries, unlike Iran, is more dynamic and effective and is achieved through numerous critical approaches. This advantage over Iran does not mean that criticism in Arab countries, like in Western countries, is constructive, innovative and influential and has reached its ideal level. This critique is also far from the desired level of powerful critique trend; but, it has a relative advantage over Iran. Literary criticism in Arab countries, like Iran, is involved in imitating and following Western critical theories and schools of thought, but there are many Arabizations and attempts to localize literary criticism and associate it with ancient Arab critical trends. This is largely due to the rich history of literary criticism in the Arab world, which is in line with the trend of criticism in ancient Greece and has gone much further.
So, contrary to common belief, cultural exchanges between Iran and the Arab world, especially in the field of literature, are very dim and worrying; however, there were very broad exchanges between the two nations in ancient times, which is not so in modern times. The best Arabic works have not been translated into Persian, and most of the studies on Arabic works do not go beyond student research. However, in the event of a warm exchange, especially in the field of resistance, because the novel The Resistance of Palestine has a considerable advantage, it provides the ground for the novel of resistance to flourish more and more efficiently. But the Arabs' use of Persian culture and works is proliferating, and as we have seen, the novel Chess with the Doomsday Machine has been translated into Arabic, despite its short history. Also, other Iranian literary works, both old and new, have been translated into Arabic, and their use in the field of writing, translating and researching Iranian works is far greater than that of ours. Therefore, it is necessary for Iranian resistance writers to gain an accurate knowledge of the rich literary works of the world, especially the works of resistance, by examining and contemplating them, and to use them in order to promote their work.
 

Conclusion

The result shows that Palestinian literature has a higher status than Iranian resistance literature due to its contextual components. We have reached and witnessed the flourishing and conquest of the world by the eternal works of the of the Holy Defense literature of Iran and even the literature of the Palestinian resistance in the world.
In terms of meta textual components, little effort has been made by the authors of the Persian Holy Defense novel, some of which go back to the authorities and others to the authors themselves in not creating works capable of being able to take the road to globalization easily. In explaining this point, it should be said that in this regard, the works should have the necessary ability to be allowed in the meta text channels and components, such as having dramatic events and the way they are processed, which provide the ground for its emergence and becoming a magnificent cinematic film. Persian novels, despite including such events, still need effort in creating epic works. To some extent, it is related to the relevant authorities who do not make much effort to identify these cases. In general, among the Persian novels, the novel Chess with the Doomsday Machine, you can find the highest frequency of meta textual components such as translation, exhibition, and new media. The novel The Palestinian Resistance does not face any serious problems in terms of contextual components and has gained great advantages due to the attention and efforts of Arab officials and global attention to this literary phenomenon, which is mostly due to economic and political reasons, as well as fame and the universality of the events of the Palestinian resistance and the literary richness of the masterpieces have brought it a successful presence beyond the borders. They have meta texts, and Qanadil novel will be successful in the future if it has other components in this field, due to its new publication.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Resistance novel
  • Sacred Defense
  • Globalization
  • Contextual components
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