دو رمان «أُمُّ سعد» و خاطرات «دا» بدین سبب که هر دو به نوعی مؤلّفههای مقاومت سرزمین فلسطین و دفاع مقدّس ایران را واگویی میکنند؛ در زمرۀ ادبیّات روایی میگنجند. این جُستار میکوشد تا از منظر سبک و دید راوی، محتوای دو داستان را بر پایۀ معیارهای پایداری و رویکرد ادبیّات تطبیقی آمریکایی تحلیل کند. خاطرات«دا» با روایتهایی مستند در یک عمل داستانی غیرخطّی و رمان «أُمُّ سعد» با بهرهگیری از درونمایههای نمادین و اسطورهای در یک سیر خطّی روایی در خلق فضا، رنگ، بهکارگیری صحنههای فراخمنظر و انواع صور خیال در تحقّق اهداف خود، کامیاب به نظر میرسند.
زهرا حسینی با شگردهای زاویۀ دید درونی اوّل شخص (تکگویی درونی، حدیثنفس و تکگویی نمایشی) و غسّان کنفانی1 با ترکیبی از زاویۀ دید درونی اوّل شخص(دو راوی) و بیرونی سوّم شخص(راوی دانای کل، دانای کل محدود و زاویۀ دید نمایشی)، حوادث داستان را روایت میکنند. در پژوهش توصیفی و تحلیلی حاضر که به روش کتابخانهای و با هدف وصول به شخصیّتهای قهرمان و درونمایههای پایداری صورت گرفته است، میتواند ضمن تبیین اشتراک و افتراق زاویۀ دید، مؤلّفههای معنوی، اجتماعی و لایههای معنایی دو اثر روایی، مخاطب را با سبک زندگی و فرهنگ جهادی زنان و مردان ایثارگر ایران و فلسطین آشنا سازد؛ چرا که پیام اصلی این دو ژانر و قهرمانان آن، مقاومت در برابر رژیم بعثی و صهیونیستی در دفاع از سرزمین بودهاست. یافتههای این پژوهش نشان میدهد که مضامین پایداری مانند عشق به وطن و دفاع از آن، ایثار و جانفشانی، ایمان و امید و ... در دو روایت، بیشترین نمود داشتهاست.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Narrative Style, the Narrator's Perspective and Themes of Resistance in the Novel "Umm Sahd" by Ghassan Kanfani and the Memoirs of "Da" by Zahra Hosseini
The two novels Umm Sahd and the memoirs of Da, because they both deal with the components of the resistance of the land of Palestine and the Holy Defense of Iran, they fall under in the category of narrative literature. This research tries to analyze the content of the two stories from the perspective of the narrator's style and viewpoint, based on the criteria of resistance and the approach of American comparative literature. the memoirs of Da, with documentary narratives, in a non-linear narrative action, and the novel Umm Sahd, using symbolic and mythical themes, in a linear narrative journey, in the creation of space and color, the use of far-flung scenes, and a variety of imaginative forms seem to succeed in achieving their goals.
Zahra Hosseini, with the techniques of the first person's internal perspective (internal monologue, hadith, and dramatic monologue) and Kanfani, with a combination of the first person's internal perspective (two narrators) and the third person's external perspective (omniscient narrator, wise The whole limited and theatrical point of view) narrate the events of the story. Explaining the commonalities and differences of view, spiritual, social components and semantic layers of the two narrative works, acquaints the audience with the lifestyle and jihadi culture of the selfless men and women of Iran and Palestine because the main message of these two genres and their heroes was to resist the Ba'athist and Zionist regimes in defending the land. The findings of this study show that the themes of resistance, such as love for the homeland and its defense, self-sacrifice, faith and hope, etc. have been most evident in the two narratives.
The present research, in order to achieve its goals, has analyzed two genres through a microscopic reading and an approach to American comparative literature through a narrative perspective. In this regard, the novel Umm Sahd from Palestine and the memoirs of Da from Iran have been selected, both of which have been patriotic as a fictional indicator in the field of resistance literature. The present study, which is among the basic researches, is analyzed by referring to library resources and researches of resistance literature, and the discussion of the narrator's point of view and its effect on the "themes of sustainability" of the two stories are examined. In this way, the components of stability and the points of commonalities and differences between the two works are explained, and the prominent role of the author in presenting a better narrative by choosing the appropriate viewpoint becomes clearer.
Kanfani narrates the novel Umm Sahd based on the social environment of his life. His narrative originated from memories that had a factual aspect and became a novel. The novel Umm Sahd has two dimensions, realistic and cryptic, and can be discussed on the basis of the narrative style of imaginary and symbolic forms. The book Da is a collection of memoirs narrated by Zahra Hosseini. The siege of Khorramshahr by Iraqi forces forms the main focus of the book. One of the important features of the work is that for the first time, the events of the war are narrated from the point of view of a 17-year-old teenage girl and are real and documented. The authors of Umm Sahd and Da use various forms of imagination. These factors have caused Da to be included in the "memory-novel" group. On a higher level, Kanfani uses the "symbol" to bring the novel closer to the "myth" with the help of expressive elements beyond the senses and intellect. The main difference between the story of Umm Sahd and Da is the symbolism of the narration of Umm Sahd. The valley of the Kanfani novel Umm Sahd is a symbol of Palestine and Palestinian mothers. Another symbolic theme of this story is Kanfani's clever use of the characters of "Sahd" and "Saeed" as a symbol of "defense of the homeland" on a large scale. Kanfani and Hosseini have been able to draw and illustrate a picture of various subjects with the help of artistic perspective and creativity in the use of symbols, imaginary forms. The element of faith, perseverance, love of homeland and hope, struggle against enemies and adversaries is the basis of the narration of Umm Sahd and Da.
In his novel, Umm Sahd, Kanfani depicts the theme of the stability of Palestinian mothers in a painting full of poverty, displacement, and suffering. He uses the most beautiful and emotional literary techniques, symbols and myths. Azam Hosseini, as the compiler of the story Da, depicts the narrator's narrative path with the art of writing, the use of literary arrays, the description of the details of the scenes and the atmosphere of the siege of Khorramshahr in an empathetic way for the reader. The narrator of Da puts the first point of view of the inner person, using the techniques and techniques of introspection, self-narration and dramatic monologue, as the main axis of narration. To achieve the content of the story, Kanfani creates positive and negative characters and, with the artist, combines the inner narrator's "I" perspective with the external omniscient and the dramatic perspective. Both stories creatively use perspective elements to capture the theme. In deciphering Umm Sahd novel, it can be said that the narrator's character believes that the struggle will be the future victory of the Palestinian people; Therefore, by planting the withered branch of the hair tree, sprouting and sprouting in the knot of the story, the spirit of hope and achieving the ideals of the homeland is reminded. The two narrators emphasize the participation of classes and individuals in the defense of the country and speak of the unity of the Palestinian and Lebanese peoples, Persians and Arabs. They react to their opponents with disgust and hatred, and always remind them of their endurance and steadfastness in the way of the homeland and its defense. One of the most important manifestations of sustainability literature in the novel Umm Sahd and the story of Da is the presence of women alongside resistance fighters in defense of the country.