شعر فارسی یکی از سیاسیترین دوران خود را در روزگار معاصر تجربه کرده است و فرانمود شخصیتهای سیاسی مثبت یا منفی از مهمترین دستمایههای شعر این عهد به حساب میآید. در این میان میرزا کوچکخان جنگلی از اهمیت ویژهای برخوردار است؛ چرا که به او و جنبشی که تحت عنوان نهضت جنگل به راه انداخت، نگاه دوگانهای شده است؛ تا آنجا که او را از مقام معصوم و قدیس تا دزد و راهزن و یاغی توصیف کردهاند. اینک مقالۀ حاضر، نگاه به این شخصیت سیاسی را در شعر سه دورۀ مجزا، یعنی عهد قاجار، دورۀ پهلوی و عصر انقلاب اسلامی بررسی کرده است. یافتهها نشان میدهد که بیشتر آثار، نگاه مثبت از قبیل وطنپرست، آزادیخواه، عدالتطلب، قدیس و شهید به او دارند؛ اما در مواردی که احتمالاً تحت تاثیر فضای سیاسی و حب و بغضهای حزبی و برپایۀ القائات نفوذیهای اجنبی پدید آمدهاند، او را با تعابیر منفی توصیف کردهاند. از میان شاعران بسیاری که دربارۀ این جریان شعر سرودهاند، اسماعیل دهقان و جعفر کوشآبادی را میتوان شاعر نهضت جنگل نامید.
عنوان مقاله [English]
The Binary Reflection of Mirza Kuchak Khan Jangali in the Mirror of Modern Poetry of Iran
Persian poetry has experienced one of its most critical political eras in the contemporary history and the representation of positive and negative images of political figures is among the most significant achievements of the modern poetry. In this regard, Mirza Kuchak Khan Jangali is of particular importance, since he started a movement called The Jungle Movement and there are two distinct attitudes regarding him in a way that he’s been described either as a saint or bandit and rebel. The present research seeks to study the different attitudes regarding this political figure in the poetry of three distinct eras including Qajar era, Pahlavi era and Islamic Revolution era. The findings indicate that in most of the works, he has been depicted as a patriot, liberal, justice seeker, saint and martyr. However, the works influenced by political atmosphere, factional likes and dislikes and also inspired by foreign infiltrators described him negatively. Among many poets composing poetry regarding this movement, we can refer to Ismail Dehghan and Jafar Kushabadi as poets of Jungle movement.
Sustainability literature has been and is one of the most effective literary genres in reflecting the political and cultural conditions prevailing in society in different eras. Literature that has risen to oppression to achieve the ideal of justice and to revolt against the tyrannical rulers to restore the rights of nations.
"This literature; "It encourages the struggle against and resistance to anti-liberation currents and ensures the liberation, growth and prosperity of human societies." (Shukri, 1987: 11)
One of the periods of Iranian sustainability literature is the period that covers from the constitutional movement to the era of the Islamic Revolution. Nowadays, we are witnessing the emergence of popular movements in the corners of the country, which are mostly based on the two axes of xenophobia and the struggle against internal tyranny and oppression of the rulers.
One of the most important popular movements after the Constitution until the Islamic Revolution is the Jungle Movement, which took place in the northern regions of the country from 1293 to 1300. This seven-year movement has a special literature, especially in the field of Persian and Gilaki poetry. In this study, we intend to examine the personality of its leader in the poetry of today.
Achieving this research shows us that the first character of the Jungle Movement, namely Mirzakoochak Khan, was quite popular and of course religious, except in terms of both the amount of poetry and the value of Mirza, the third period of the Islamic Revolution with periods. The former is very. It is different and the poetry of the forest in the Pahlavi period is small or at least less presented. Although Mirza is no different from the period of the revolution.