نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانشیار گروه تاریخ دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان، کرمان، ایران.

10.22103/jrl.2022.3230

چکیده

از روزگاری که انسان در بیان احساسات و رفع و تسکین آلام دست به دامان موسیقی گردید از اصوات آن و نواهای مختلف موسیقی تنها در بزم‌‌‌ها و سوگواری‌ها بهره نگرفت، بلکه حتی برای بازیافت، نگهداری و تقویت سلامت جسمی و روحی و همچنین در آیین‌های دینی و بیان روایات حماسی از این ابداع بشری استفاده کرد. در این بین، آنچه اهمیت بسزایی دارد این است که موسیقی در میدان‌های رزم نیز کاربرد داشته است و بر این مبنا از مسائل مهم این است که از چه آلات و ابزار موسیقیایی در میدان‌های نبرد استفاده می‌شده است و مهم‌تر آنکه این نواهای موسیقی چه تاثیر و اهمیتی در رزم‌‌‌ها و عملکرد سپاهیان در برخوردهای نظامی داشته‌اند و  نوازندگان و موسیقی‌دانان در آرایش نظامی چه جایگاه و وظایفی را عهده‌دار بودند. از مطالعه و بررسی متون تاریخی کلاسیک و متون روایی منظوم و منثور که به روایت حماسی و تاریخی پرداخته‌‌‌‌اند و همچنین بهره‌بری از برخی نگاره‌های باستانی، چنین برمی‌آید که ایرانیان باستان در بیان روایات حماسی و به منظور نمایان کردن و برجسته‌ساختن هر چه بهتر کردارهای پرشکوه و قهرمانانة پهلوانان و سرداران از موسیقی بهره گرفته و از سازها و آلات مختلف در آماده‌سازی، تهییج و تشجیع سپاهیان و هراس‌افکنی در دل دشمنان استفاده‌می‌کردند و مهمتر از همه، فرمان‌های فرماندهان مبنی بر آغاز جنگ و پایان‌بخشی بدان و به طور کلی ارسال پیام به سربازان در میدان‌های نبرد با موسیقی میسّر می‌شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The Function and Importance of Epic Music in the Resistance and Motivation of Troops in Ancient Iran

نویسنده [English]

  • Hamid Kavyani Pouya

Associate Professor of History, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran

چکیده [English]

 

Introduction

From the time when man, by forming a monolithic society and passing through cave-dwelling beyond basic needs such as food and clothing, thought of expressing his feelings and emotions and relieving pain, he found music to be the best means for this purpose. The important point is that gradually some people who acquired talent and skills in this field found a place and became an integral part of society. In the meantime, what is very important is that music has also been used in battlefields,and on this basis, one of the important issues is what musical instruments have been used on the battlefields, and more importantly, what impact and importance these musical instruments have had in battles. Also what was the role of musicians and musicians in military formation and arrangement.  Due to the prestige that music had in custom and among religious teachings; The musicians were introduced as court attendants. It is important to note that some musicians and musicians were on the same level as the upper classes of society and took an active role in advancing cultural, religious and even military goals among the Iranian dynasties.
 

Methodology

In this research, by studying the narrations of Greek historians, religious books and the writings of some historians of the Islamic period, it has been tried to study different musical instruments as well as the use and ability of musical instruments in Iranian military battles and encounters with enemies. Also, to advance the research have been used, poetic and literary works and material references, as well as abbreviations and musical instruments that have been reflected in the research texts. Thus, through library studies, by arranging and processing the available information in a descriptive, analytical way, the research has reached results about the importance, position and capability of music in the battles of the Iranians.
 

Discussion

One of the most important issues in the history of Iran is the study of how martial music and musicians helped the Iranian government in military conflicts. Also, according to the numerous wars that existed in different eras between Iranians with Eastern and Western enemies, what was the use of different musical instruments in organizing forces, conveying concepts and even achieving victories and successes. Martial music is a collection of special songs with symbols used on battlefields to convey a message or command that is meaningful to the commanders and soldiers of the same army. Also, military music is the music of awakening, movement, work, effort and war, and has aroused a sense of national pride of the troops. In ancient Iran, different musical instruments were used in ceremonies and battles, which according to the examples and in the written and material works can be said that in ancient times, the musical instruments used in battlefields were more than wind and percussion and the Iranians (especially in the Parthian era), unlike the Greeks and Romans who used wind instruments, used more percussion instruments such as drums. Another instrument that we find along with many drums in the writings of ancient historians was the kos or kust and trumpet, which were especially effective with the horn(hornpipe), especially to signal the army to start a battle or to enter a part of the army into battle.
 One of the first functions as well as the most important effects of epic music; It was to motivate the troops in the resistance against the enemies, and in other words, this tool was so strong in motivating and encouraging the troops to face the enemies that one of the tricks in weakening the troops' morale and defeating them was first to silence the music and then to overthrow the flag. Another military goal that music provided on the battlefield was to intimidate the opposition and exaggerate their own military capabilities. In fact, one of the uses of violent music such as drums, cymbals and trumpets in wars was to frighten the heart of the enemy and the more deafening these sounds were, the more useful the income of their own troops was in frightening the enemy and disrupting their order and concentration. Also, the important applications of music in informing and sending messages to the troops should not be neglected, because through this, the troops became aware of the commands and orders of the commanders, and based on this, the movements and actions of the division were organized in a regular and fast manner. In ancient Iran, during war trips, musicians who were organized as a group were among the troops and held special positions and duties in the military formation. In fact, according to the available reports, singers and musicians had a special place among the troops, and when enumerating the special and close relatives of the king, there was talk of three classes, the first two being soldiers and border guards, and the third, next to the army; were singers and musicians.
 

Conclusion

In the ancient world, in addition to feasts, music was also used very seriously in battles, and the soldiers used musical instruments in military exercises until they faced the enemy army. In fact, the soldiers woke up to the sound of an instrument and lined up, attacking, besieging, or retreating to the sound of music. In this way, the commands and orders of the commanders were heard by the soldiers in the form of military voices. What can be seen from the documents and material and written evidence, musical instruments had a special variety in the history of Iran and in expressing each message and conveying the meaning and concept of a particular instrument or instruments, it was used individually or in unison. And especially because of the existence of minstrel and the importance of epic narrations and the fact that the poems that told epic stories were accompanied by music, musicians and singers had a special place among the troops and the musicians and singers formed a certain section and member of the body of the Iranian army. These people tried to prepare the soldiers to face the enemy and to raise and strengthen the morale of the troops, and with their terrifying songs,were also effective in weakening the morale of the enemies.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • War
  • Epic
  • Ancient Iran
  • Epic music
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