از دو دهۀ گذشته بدین سو، رویکردهای شناختی به مسئلۀ زبان و ادبیات، ماهیّت و بهتَبَع آن کارکرد متفاوتی برای استعاره قائل شدهاند که بر پایۀ آن، استعاره تنها یک آرایۀ ادبی یا یکی از صورِ خیال نیست؛ بلکه فرایندی فعال در نظام شناختی بشر محسوب میشود. اهمّیت استعاره فقط در کاربرد واژه، عبارت یا جمله نیست؛ بلکه هر استعارهای یک مدل فرهنگی در ذهن ایجاد میکند که زنجیرۀ رفتاری بر اساس آن برنامهریزی میشود. از این دیدگاه، استعارۀ مفهومی یا شناختی برحسب نیاز بشر به درک و بازنمایی پدیدهها و با تکیه بر ساخت واژهها و اطلاعات قبلی شکل میگیرد و در جریان تفکر، نقش مهمی ایفا میکند؛ بنابراین تعاریف، استخراج و بررسی این نوع استعارهها از هر متنی سبب میشود که درک ما از جهان ذهنی گوینده، دقت و عمق یابد. نویسنده در این پژوهش به شیوۀ توصیفی- تحلیلی و روش کتابخانهای به بررسی استعارههای مفهومی و طرحوارههای فرهنگی در روایتهای مردانه از دفاع مقدّس پرداختهاست. نتایج پژوهش بیانگر آن است که در آثار دفاع مقدّس بهعنوان نمونهای از شعر و نثر معاصر، انواع استعارههای مفهومی با حوزههای مبدأ و نگاشتهای مشخص یافت میشود که قدرت تخیّل و عیار تفکر انتزاعی شاعران و نویسندگان اینگونه آثار را مشخص میکند. محقق در پی پاسخگویی به این پرسشهاست که چگونه میتوان تفاوت مفهومسازیهای مردانه از جنگ را در قالب نظریۀ استعارۀ مفهومی و طرحوارهها بررسی کرد؟ و در شکلگیری استعارههای مفهومی در روایتهای مردانه از چه حوزههای مبدأ استفاده شدهاست؟
عنوان مقاله [English]
A Study of Conceptual Metaphors in Men's Narratives of Sacred Defense
For the past two decades, cognitive approaches to the question of language and literature have given metaphor a different function and nature, according to which metaphor is not just a literary array or one of imaginary forms, but an active process in human’s cognitive system. The importance of metaphor is not just in the use of a word, phrase or sentence; Rather, each metaphor creates a cultural model in the mind on which the chain of behavior is programmed. From this point of view, conceptual or cognitive metaphor is formed according to the human need to understand and represent phenomena, relying on the construction of previous words and information, and plays an important role in the flow of thinking. Therefore, the definitions, extraction and study of these types of metaphors from any text cause our understanding of the narrator's mental world to be accurate and deep. In this research, the author has studied the conceptual metaphors and cultural schemas in the male narratives of the sacred defense in a descriptive-analytical and library method. The results indicate that in the works of the Holy Defense as an example of contemporary poetry and prose, a variety of conceptual metaphors with specific areas of origin and writings can be found that the power of imagination and the abstract thinking of poets and writers. It identifies such works. The researcher seeks to answer the question of how the difference between masculine conceptualizations of war can be examined in the form of conceptual metaphor theory and schemas and in the formation of conceptual metaphors in male narratives, what areas of origin have been used.
Keywords: Conceptual metaphors, Cultural schemas, Men's narrative, Sacred Defense
Schemas are a part of cultural models that are placed inside the cultural model. These schemas are different in the minds of different people, and their growth has been one of the most important recent achievements in cognitive anthropology, and as their name implies, they depend on culture and vary from one culture to another.
Cognitive linguistics looks at language as a means to discover the structure of the human cognitive system. Cognitive linguists are of the opinion that metaphor is a cognitive phenomenon and what appears in language is the only manifestation of this cognitive phenomenon. In cognitive linguistics, an effort is made to study language based on our experiences of the world, the way of understanding and the way of conceptualization; therefore, the study of language from this point of view is the study of conceptualization patterns. Likoff and Johnson (1980) have proved that there is a strong relationship between culture and metaphor, and they believe that "the coherence of the most basic values in a culture takes place with the help of the metaphorical structures of the fundamental concepts in the culture." (ibid., p. 113) On the other hand, according to the statements of Kovech (2006), metaphor is related to culture in many ways, and conceptual metaphors that are widely used in language are considered to be the main component of culture. Also, language is considered an important indicator for conceptual metaphors. Conceptual metaphor plays an important role in better understanding of culture and socio-cultural environment, and its important point is that metaphors have an experiential basis, that is, they are related to the way humans experience reality. (Girartz, 2006, pp. 28-27). From the point of view of cognitive linguistics, metaphor is the understanding of one conceptual domain based on another conceptual domain.
Statement of the problem
Examining the metaphors related to war in the literature of Sacred Defense helps us to understand it better. In this research, the author has investigated conceptual metaphors and cultural schemas in men's narratives of sacred defense using a descriptive-analytical method and library method. The results of the research show that in the works of Holy Defense, as an example of contemporary poetry and prose, there are various conceptual metaphors with specific areas of origin and mappings, which are the power of imagination and the caliber of abstract thinking of poets and writers. It identifies the works. The researchers seek to answer these questions: How can the difference between men's conceptualizations of war be investigated in the form of conceptual metaphor theory and schemas? And what areas of origin have been used in the formation of conceptual metaphors in male narratives?
1.2. Research method
In this research, the author has investigated the conceptual metaphors in male narratives of the Holy Defense in a descriptive-analytical and library method. The results of the research show that in the works of Holy Defense as an example of contemporary poetry and prose, there are various conceptual metaphors with specific areas of origin and mappings, which are the power of imagination and the caliber of abstract thinking of poets and writers. It identifies the works.
Discussion and review
2.1. Examining conceptual metaphors in men's narratives of holy defense
The metaphors used in the discourse of war, according to the fields of origin, include seven sections of religious beliefs, animals, body parts, sports, trade and commerce, education and school. It is vital that each field is examined and the core metaphors or important ones in that area are mentioned in each field.
2.1.1. The metaphor of religious beliefs
The belief-religious domain is one of the most widely used domains of origin. In fact, the images taken from the warriors and the battlefield are religious images that are rooted in religious and religious beliefs.
In most of the images of the front and the war, a connection has been established between the incident of Karbala and the battlefield. Young and old warriors of the front are depicted as Hazrat Qasim and Habib bin Mazaher, and the nursing and treatment of the wounded by women is reminiscent of the nursing and presence of Zainab (PBUH) in Ashura. In some metaphors, the influence of Mahdavi culture can be seen. Among them, obedience to the Viceroy of Imam Zaman (AS), military honor for Imam Asr (AS), and creating a spiritual connection with Imam Asr (AS), which has led to the presence of more fighters in the fronts.
2.1.2. animal metaphor
Animal metaphors are very common in language, and the animal kingdom is often used as a starting point. Considering that the rank of human is higher than that of animals, if they want to degrade the character and value of a person, they will compare his status with animals; i.e., his rank is considered the same as that of an animal, and from the metaphor "man is an animal." By using these animal metaphors, the undesirable characteristics and unpleasant traits of humans are shown, such as: stupidity, ignorance and ignorance, etc. These metaphors are cognitive-cultural. It means that not only have they cognitive roots, but also they have a special meaning in each culture and are interpreted according to the values and beliefs of that culture, which may differ from one culture to another.
In the review of the data, it can be seen that in all the writings related to the discourse of war, the domain of animals is used as the domain of origin. The number of animals used is twenty-one animals, which are mostly used to indicate the enemy's force.
2.1.3. body parts
In many conceptual metaphors, concepts related to the body are used to understand abstract matters. Therefore, the body as a perceptual metaphor is universal. Metaphors that use body parts as the domain of origin depend on culture, i.e., there is a three-way relationship between metaphor, culture and language. Examining the data indicates that fourteen metaphors related to body parts were used in the discourse of war. Most of these metaphorical expressions have idiomatic function and can be interpreted.
From the above metaphors, fourteen parts of the body have been used as the starting point in the metaphors related to the discourse of war, and in most of these cases, these metaphors have found an idiomatic application. In this field, the word "heart" has been used more than other words so that it can be considered as the core. According to the survey, the frequency of body part metaphors in stories with male narration is 87 cases, the most frequent being the use of the metaphor ‘head’.
2.1.4. Sports and games
Sports as a cultural product can express the identity of a nation and country. Sports terms are very common in our daily conversation in the form of irony. In the following data, sports terms are used as metaphors in the discourse of war. Each sport has certain characteristics that have been used for metaphorical purposes in war discourse.
The battlefield is seen as a chessboard, the white pieces (self-soldiers) as the army of light and the black pieces (enemy soldiers) as the army of darkness and darkness, and in fact, the war between these two is a war between two spiritual and material armies.
In ancient and zurkhaneh sports, athletes deal with tools such as a swimming board, a barbell, a barbell, etc., and in the literature of war, soldiers compare the battlefield to the athletes of this field, and war tools have been compared to zurkhaneh sports tools. It is also used metaphorically from wrestling and swimming. In this area, no core metaphor or macro metaphor was observed. According to the research, in stories with male narration 25 cases of sports and games metaphor are used, and the most frequent use of the metaphor is "battlefield is a Pahlavi field".
2.1.5. Trade and transaction
Humans have been involved in trade in some way for a long time. They have always appeared in the role of buyer or seller and sometimes goods (in slavery), all of which have had a great impact on the formation of conceptual metaphors with the origin of the transaction. Concepts related to trade are also used in the discourse of war. In the analysis of the data, it was observed that fighting and going to the front is stated according to the economic and commercial costs and benefits, that in this transaction, the sellers are the warriors of the front, and the buyer is God, and the commodity traded is the life of the warrior, which is the price of the supply of this commodity, gaining paradise and martyrdom.
The metaphor "battlefield is the field of transaction", is the core metaphor in this field, around which other metaphors are found. According to this research, in 16 cases, the metaphor of business and transaction in stories with a male narrative is used, where the metaphor "warriors are sellers" is the most frequent.
2.1.6. Education and school
In the data analysis, it was observed that in a number of metaphors, the school and the topic of education were used as the source area. In this school, martyrdom is a sign of their passing the exam, being wounded and shot is a sign of honor and getting a degree, to stay in the defense line and not be sent to the front line. The worst punishment for the students of this school is that all these shows that the writers in their works consider the front as a means of divine test in which acceptance and success are important, and their ultimate goal is to meet him who, with this view of death, participating in war and the battlefield becomes a goal and aspiration, and by creating this space, people are motivated to participate in the war.
"Battlefield is a school" metaphor is part of the core metaphors. According to the survey, out of 30 metaphors related to education and school, the most frequently used metaphors are "the front of the school" and "God is the teacher".
A number of metaphors have been used in the discourse of war to give life to objects and phenomena, and in most of them, human personality has been attributed to war tools. It should be noted that these examples are purely Macean metaphors and not all examples are covered by conceptual metaphors.
In this field, the metaphor of the core or the macro is not used, and out of 73 cases, the most frequent use of the life metaphor is the use of the bullet metaphor.
The investigation of the research shows that the authors of the Holy Defense have paid great attention to a number of conceptual metaphors, considering the conditions of the war and the social, political, military and cultural developments arising from it, and some of them have been analyzed in this research. As seen, religious beliefs and values have been used metaphorically in the discourse of war with a wide scope. In the study of metaphors related to this field, it was observed that the metaphor "battlefield is Karbala square" is used as a core and macro metaphor that most other metaphors in this field are around this core metaphor. According to the study, the frequency of using the metaphor of religious beliefs in stories with a male narration is 42 cases, the most frequent of which is the use of the metaphor “Karbala front”. The use of animal methaphors in stories with a male narrative is 34 cases, among which the most frequent is “dog” for enemies and “eagle” for internal warriors. Also, the frequency of the use of the body parts metaphors in stories with a male narrative is 87 cases, among which the most frequent one is “head”. In the field of sport and game metaphors, no core or macro metaphor was observed, and according to the survey, the frequency of use of sports and game metaphor in stories with male narration is 25 cases, and the methaphor with the highest frequency is “Pahlavani battlefield”. The use of trade and transaction metaphor in stories with male narration is 16 cases, among which the most frequently used metaphor is “warriors are salesmen”. According to the study, the frequency of using the metaphor of education and school in stories with male narration is 30 cases, and the most highly frequent metaphors are “the front is the school” and “God is the teacher”. Also, the research results indicate that various objects and phenomena such as bullets, mortar shrapnel, shooting, sand, war, etc. have been given life in the discourse of war, which is one of the tools of metaphor. In this area, the core metaphor or macro metaphor was not observed. And the metaphor of life in stories with male narration was found in 73 cases, the most frequent metaphor being “bullet”.